Dark – Darker – Darkness

human_evolution_article_big3[1]How far are we humans along the road of evolution? Some will point to our technological advances to suggest we are well north of phenomenal. They will point to developments in science generally and to medicine, travel and communication in particular and pronounce that the world is growing smaller and more beneficial for all.

A minority report may argue vociferously that the world has grown worse. This report would point to trafficking of people, drugs, and weapons, in effect anything illegal that generates cash. Money is the oil which keeps the wheels of the economic system working. This ‘black economy’ is perhaps the real economy.

Power and its offshoots – privilege –prestige – influence (there are more) are the motivators. It’s a truism that money speaks and money buys, whether you are a CEO of a major company or a head-honcho of a major drug cartel. If you are truly ambitious and have enough dosh personally and in support you can become the President of the USA, numero uno of the world’s politicians.thKGW4YVRM

“It is now painfully clear that elections depend substantially on money, and elected officials have to spend too much time raising money and respond disproportionately to the preferences of donors.” US Supreme Court cited Reuters 2015/01/19


In my previous post: Morality: Did it Ever Exist I mentioned that slavery is now more prevalent than ever and sad to say but the same is true of child abuse. The statistics are a tale of human depravity.

Figures such as, forty million kids below the age of 15 are subjected to abuse, WHO 2001. Most suffer from physical abuse. Emotional abuse can devastate for a lifetime. thBHNITY72Sexual abuse is estimated to affect 36% of girls and 29% of boys. In 2005 UNICEF suggested that an astonishing 100 – 140 million girls are subjected to genital mutilation. The ILO (2006) say that around 250 million kids between the ages of five (5) and fourteen (14) are used as forced labour. Also that one million kids have been trafficked for the sex trade.

Check the dates, they are from years ago but nothing has improved. Up to date statistics can be found at:

My attention was redrawn to this heinous crime by the events in Kasur Pakistan. Here child abuse was run like a family business.

Around 270 kids from the age of 12 were forced into sexual acts which were videoed. The child and family would then be blackmailed or the video sold. The depravity has been going on for years. We may never know the true number of kids abused in this way. Telegraph 2015/08/10 + uk.reuters.com

Another attention grabber was in Bedford England where a man was jailed for 16 months for having 20,000 images of child abuse on his computer. Some 3,300 were Category A – the most obscene. Personally, I would lock the cell door and toss the key! www.bedfordtoday.co.uk

The picture in the UK generally is not good, the NSPCC report that 62,000 children phoned Childline in 2014 of these over 18,000 referred to sexual abuse. Of 23,000 sexual offences against kids some 5,500 were under the age of eleven (11). The number of cases continues to rise.

Meanwhile across Europe 250,000 kids go missing. Almost half are runaways – from what? Of the rest; will we ever know? There is a European hotline 116000 but the funds to operate it run out at the end of the year. Do many know of its existence?          Euronews.

I was bemused to read that in western countries preventing abuse was “a high priority”, among politicians.  Read the coverage at this site.      www.en.m.wikipedia.org/childabuse

The situation in America is dire. The website childhelp.org suggests that 3 million child abuse cases are reported annually which is categorized as the worse of the industrial nations. In addition five (5) kids a day die from abuse and neglect.

Furthermore, compassion.com suggests that 20% of women and between 5 -10% of men say they were sexually abused as kids. That worldwide nearly two (2) million children are exploited in the commercial sex trade and, that sexual abuse is the second largest criminal industry and growing.

There is a slither of good news Google (developer) Facebook and Twitter are to block “hash lists” of child abuse. This is good news indeed by these companies but hiding it will not prevent it. Our politicians must do more.

What of the “high priority” pledge by politicians. Is it a pretence that something is happening when in fact it is not. We should demand a ten or twenty point plan with a timeline agreed to at a G20 summit.

At the 2014 UN General Assembly meeting – the 69th session –  seven (7) summits were organised for the week: indigenous people, climate change, counter-terrorism, Ebola, education and a Global compact – businessmen meeting. www.ipnews.net

Have you noticed any significant change in these areas? Ebola, but that in reality was a marketing exercise by the West. (Call me cynical) It was an easy fix in global terms. More people die in Africa from poor water supply and malaria. Let’s eradicate them!!

Another UN meeting in August 2015 the Sustainable Development Agenda was accepted with the aim to end poverty by 2030. The cost will be in the region of $3 – 5 trillion per year. Can you see it happening? Cynical!! One interesting point came from the discussions:

“Women and girls everywhere have much to gain from the SDGs. But to make it a reality we have to keep pressure on governments to follow through in their commitments”. Shannon Kowalski

Note the ‘But’! That’s a big ‘if’ factor as success depends on national politicians. Note also that everything is geared to sustained business development as the only hope of achieving the goals. However, centuries of capitalism has not ameliorated poverty, slavery or child abuse.

Capitalism is not the best-fit option for humanity. It stimulates our base instincts like greed and pride. When stress enters our lives some go dark, the greater the stress the darker they go. In times of great upheaval we enter the darkness, ethnic cleansing etc.

The world cannot grow until men learn how to!!







Nepal: Beauty and the Beast (2)

The Long March

Another barrier to development in Nepal is language but then that is true the world over. If we cannot converse we find it difficult to reach common ground, there can be no compromise. We isolate ourselves, and in that isolation entrenchment festers and hostility develops without the need of rationale. All these factors can culminate in the sheer backwardness of nationalism and down that road, irrational violence.

Children of the mountain regionThere is only one route out of this dead end and that is education. Of the several languages and local dialects spoken, Nepalese and English predominate. Should the government make one of these or both mandatory?  

Establishing schools is but a step in the right direction. The schools need to be properly staffed and equipment has to be readily available. Of prime importance is getting the kids to come to school and to stay in the system.

  • 50% don’t complete primary education.
  • 34% can’t read or write in the poor areas.
  • 20% ONLY of Dalit children attend school. (resolveinternational.org)

Many kids don’t go to school because they can’t afford the uniform or the equipment necessary for class work e.g. books or pencils etc: (Rural Education Development Centre). Do I see a charity stepping in here to lend a hand?

Perhaps the Maoist government need to take a leaf from their old Chairman’s, Little Red Book and send students into the countryside. They could pay the students university fees, plus accommodation etc: for a two year hard slog in the rural areas. Voluntary Services Overseas might lend a hand. A band of charities could pool their cash and personnel and fund a school (s) in the remote parts. But, but, but we don’t need no indoctrination – we don’t need mind control; charities leave those kids alone! However, being able to read and write could transform the lives of everyone in Nepal. Literacy is a gift to a better life.

women at work

A daily task

Education is the key but first you must unlock the potential of the female in Nepalese society. A staggering 34% of marriages are of girls under 15 years old; the law stipulates 18! Is anybody doing something about that? Adult literacy for women stands at 44.5%, while 67% of illiterates in Nepal are female (soschildrensvillages.ca/). As it is mainly the women who nurture and raise the children it is imperative that the figures highlighted are dramatically changed. No flower blossoms without a good root.

If we are serious about helping the children of Nepal then we must have a two pronged attack on the problem. The schools must be built and staffed but there must be a blitz on adult education. Without the latter there is little prospect for the former. Illiteracy is a coffin for the mind!

Before any one attacks me for letting the males off the hook, I am not; I have made two assumptions:

1)      They are too busy trying to eke out a living.

2)      They don’t think about it or think much about it.

As 75% of the population depend on agriculture (CIA) and remote areas are less productive, we can assume that time spent on farming is far greater.

forced labour

The neverending story

While a focus on education would be a positive step we must also ensure that the children are psychologically in the right frame of mind to enjoy and absorb the essentials of this life chance. Too many kids are being abused. Child labour is widespread with 25% of girls and 17% of boys at work everyday. Child trafficking is a blight on the country (childrensrightsportal.org/Nepal). The Sindhupalchok district has the reputation for child abuse and trafficking. (docfnepal.org) Many young girls end up in the brothels of India.

According to restlessbeings.org some 5-7 thousand girls are trafficked each year. That paedophiles have opened shelters and orphanages as a front to hide their abhorrent activities. That during a 6 year period only 8 paedophiles were arrested and sentenced. This would suggest that someone is doing a Nelson e.g. turning a blind eye to the situation.

These kids are prey for a predatory animal. Paedophiles in the guise of tourists add mockery to the utter shame in which these children live. Such ‘tourists’ are there to delve into the squalid aspects of life in Nepal. Their innate selfishness has no boundaries; they are atavistic in nature.

slums of the capital

Poor Kathmandu

The World Health Organisation (WHO) suggests that most of the street kids come from poor families, were they lived in ‘dire’ poverty. Or they ran from domestic violence or from poorly run orphanages. There may be as many as 30,000+ street kids and over 10% are homeless. (cfsc.trunky.net). The story gets worse, aglobalvillage.org state that 95% of the 1,200 street kids in Kathmandu sniff glue, a carpet glue called Dendrite. The horror has been witnessed first hand by (handsinnepalahome.blogspot.co.uk). She was so appalled that she wants to start a food kitchen for the street kids and is looking for help.

I grant that there are a myriad of problems that beset Nepal and none are easily solved. I respect that a number of organisations are ‘doing their bit’ but it is simply not enough. We need a change of mind set by the aid donors and the charities. A serious plan for reconstruction, properly co-ordinated and, having first identified the root causes of the problem, engage a ruthless determination to redress them.

How many students in their ‘gap’ year could be encouraged to volunteer? How many businesses could lend their name to a project? How many large retailers with branches all over the country could sponsor a project and have collection cans in all their outlets? Tell the story; build a relationship between their customers and the project in Nepal. Am I alone in thinking that nothing is insurmountable? Illiteracy is a crime against humanity! Start rocking – the rest will roll!

Nepal: Beauty and the Beast


lake view

Beauty has no equal

 Mountain village





Mountain lake

Speaks for itself

It is unmistakably a landscape photographers dream venue or, for anyone with an eye for taste. There is much to admire in the country; so much to do as a tourist. Over one million visit Nepal annually. They come for various reasons; the overwhelming majority come to enjoy all that is beautiful about the country. Naturally these tourists are welcomed; their spending contributes a great deal to the nation’s economy. They are there to view the beauty of the landscape, to photograph, paint, to hike, to climb, and to challenge themselves in the wilderness of the Himalayas.

However, there is a seedier side to the country, the poverty of huge numbers of the population and the distress of so many children. The basis of this tragedy lies in the core problems that beset Nepal: the traditional way of life, language barriers, the environment, and as ever politics and its offspring the inevitable power struggle.

The Maoist (CPN-M) insurrection against the monarchy lasted 10 years, 1996-2006. The struggle for power brought victory for the Communists, who subsequently won an election in 2008. They were voted as the largest party in the new assembly. War had cost 12,000 lives, while 100,000 were displaced. (bbc.co.uk, Aug: 2012) With a population of approximately 30m both figures are sizable and must have put enormous strain on the people and the nation’s ability to cope; at a time when radical change was required.

 There is a large body of thought that maintains that change must not be imposed; rather that we work alongside the people until they recognise the rationale to change. For cultural anthropologists there is integrity in this logic. However, each day that passes more children die and are abused. I understand resistance to change by those steeped in tradition over generations. Nonetheless, the question must be asked as to whether ignorance should dictate policy. Some will argue that that very sentiment works both ways; that to intervene too early damages the prospect for success and the rights of the people. A contrary view (mine) would argue that the cost to the children is too great. That if people need to be dragged screaming and kicking into the modern age, so be it.The capitalist society of Western culture might not be everyone’s cup of tea, but it does hold out a much better opportunity for the youth of Nepal to gain a better existence.

Charities can play a small part in instigating change. The individual areas they choose to work in may act as a catalyst for change over the long term. But, but, but, can the kids wait? Is the argument that we cannot prevent the brutality of the children without first winning over the dominant males of that society? Let’s not kid ourselves; we are talking about the dominant males! For me, if we do not confront them we denude the children and the women and empower the males even more.

Facts always make poor reading and so it is with these:

13,000 children die each year from respiratory infection. While 3,000 die from diarrhoea.

50% of under-fives have stunted growth and 66% are underweight. (UNICEF)

The mortality rate for kids under five is 48%. (childrensrightsportal.org)

Sad as these statistics are the fact that the, Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been in force for 23 years; turns a tragedy into a sick joke.  I’ll just repeat that shall I – 23 years.

The CRC article 7 states that every, “child shall be registered at birth.” Well, not in Nepal! Could this be a job for UNICEF or a charity?

Article 6 states, “every child has the inherent right to life.” What does ‘life’ mean in this context?

Nonetheless, much of the information we have on Nepal comes from UNICEF. They keep writing reports, doing studies, accumulating appropriate data. And then; and then they do it all over again.

On the positive side these reports do have relevance; they keep track of the diverse nature and spread of poverty. Moreover, the presence of UNICEF ensures that the government of Nepal has one clear eye on the need for action. In addition the reports can help to identify where need is most acute.

On the downside, there is no immediacy and therefore the children are left in a critical situation. There does not seem to be any coherent plan to tackle this daily blight. There is

children collecting stone

child workers

a history of economic plans; each with a reduction in poverty as a prime aim. Twelve plans so far, some of 5 years, some of 3 years. The latest is of 3 years duration. The plans have been running longer than the CRC but have had minimal impact. (mpra.ub.uni-munchen.de/) From the same German study we find, “…there has been no significant improvement in reducing the gap between poor and rich people.”

Q. Which side are you on? Slow, slow, slow, snoring!

Or get a move on!

Is change coming, precipitated by economic reality? Many young men are taking the opportunity to work abroad. (Guardian.co.uk, July 2012) The article talks of ‘remittances’ e.g. the young men sending or bringing home money earned abroad to the value of $3.5bn per year. The journalist,        J. Glennie cites the World Bank’s figures of a reduction of ‘extreme’ poverty, from 70% to 25% of the population in 15 years.  Glennie, suggests that the ‘remittances’ have had an impact on the poverty figures.

 In consequence of the men leaving, women in some villages have had to act as pallbearers at funerals which hitherto would have been taboo. Also alluded to in the article was the fact that some men returned with sexual diseases which has lead to divorce;  creating another fracture in the traditional family hierarchy. There is a sad irony here in that the men working in India and frequenting the local brothels may be taking their pleasure from young Nepalese girls, trafficked from their home country.

Are we seeing a fissure so deep that it threatens to transform traditional Nepal? Is migration affording us a glimpse of the future that the only prospect for a good life lies outside the country? Will the young men ever return permanently? If not, will their young women follow them? The “deserts in the sky” (hymalayanchildren.org) may well become deserted.

 Part 2 to follow…

Child Poverty 4


What Can Be Done?


child from the streets

Born in a dead man’s town

On the home front there is much that can be done but it does require a strong government and a real desire to push through the needed changes. Several tax changes could lighten the burden of the poor, giving them more disposable income. However, you cannot dictate what they chose to spend it on. Moreover, Tim Worstall, (Forbes.com) is quite adamant that giving welfare and tax credits does not reduce poverty, “by a fraction of a percentage point, it does not reduce poverty by one single person.” An astute observation but you achieve nothing by sitting on your hands.

Based on the premise that we retain the ‘relative poverty’ criteria – though I feel that we need better indices or a least a common one – we have to identify the causes of poverty. Ron Haskins, (ibid) has come up with a series of good indicators:

“…less jobs, stagnant wages, rise of single- parent families, inferior education and the arrival of millions of immigrants with poor education and low skills are little engines pushing up the poverty rate.” (a slightly long but very good read)

While Haskins is talking about America, the same can be true of any developed nation.

The Department of Work & Pensions (DWP) UK in their 2012 report state that the “root causes must be tackled.” The report goes on to suggest that the best way to escape poverty is “…through achievement in education and work.” Both of these may appear prerequisites but must be implemented properly. Tony Blair gave us thirteen years of: education, education, education and that was a miserable failure. More needs to be done to identify the ‘root causes’ of poverty and to devise a plan to overcome them.

Public Service Europe (.com) suggests that more money should be spent on “… after school clubs, youth clubs and community work.” Haven’t we been here before? Yet we must not dismiss the rationale, if we can get empirical evidence that they make a credible impact.

To add to the list, economicshelp.org proposes a long hard look at indirect taxation. Here is where I believe the Government, any government, can make a substantial contribution, if not to eradicate poverty then at least to ease the hardship of trying to make ends meet.

  •  VAT a pernicious tax which takes a larger chunk of the income of the poor than that of the rich. Cut it!
  •  Petrol, the government take 57% of pump price in tax. This affects every aspect of travel and distribution. A cut would reduce costs for everyone.
  •   Alcohol, Tax on drink hits the poorest hardest.
  •   Council tax, it is estimated that this tax takes 5% of the income of the poor but only 1% from the rich. Cut it!
  •   Tax banding, raise the band at which you start to pay tax to £12,000
  •   Universal Benefits’, e.g. child benefit – keep it – and raise it in line with inflation as it has a better take up rate than any other benefit.
  •   Minimum wage, increase in line with inflation
  •   Hire Purchase (HP), restrict HP interest to 5% above the Bank of England rate –National bank rate. Many retailers charge 29.9%. Many people rely on HP to furnish their home.
  •  Immigration, curb it. I noted that not one of the charities mentioned the impact of immigration as a cause of poverty. Perhaps they were trying hard to be ‘politically correct’. This is where politics really does stink! Bias it holds no truth!Unless you identify all the factors that contribute to poverty then you can never deal it a fatal blow. Immigration does affect so many aspects of people’s lives: housing shortages + higher rents, education = schools trying to cope with multi-lingual classes, wages =kept low, jobs = fewer jobs & no training.

We are starting to build a comprehensive list of what can be done. The top priority, perhaps the biggest hurdle is a programme that encourages all parents to read to their offspring. We do perhaps need to devise a book subsidy scheme to help in this area.


child care

A simple must!

“No human capital program is so widely believed to be effective as pre-school education for children from poor and low-income families.” Ron Haskins (ibid)

“Move from tax credits to affordable child care.” John Denham, Member of Parliament.

If we accept that one-parent families and poor single income families are trapped in the vice of poverty and that work is an essential element in breaking free then we must get people to work. Therefore good affordable child care has to be a priority.

How can the Government pay for the ‘wish list’? They can close every tax loophole that comes to light. Cut tax evasion altogether. Drive hard and fast on welfare cheats. Have a systematic onslaught on the ‘Black Economy’. Altogether, this could net £100bn+. Stop the spin and put income tax up by 2p in the pound.

I said at the start that the Government would not eradicate child poverty by 2020, why not? According to the Institute of Fiscal Studies and cpag.org.uk child poverty is set to rise, reaching 4.2 m by the target date. Moreover, there is little hope that the Government will implement the changes necessary to achieve an end to child poverty.

You can cross your fingers or tell the Government to get their finger out!

There is so much more that could be said but I’ll leave that to the man who wrote extensively on the subject and brought it to a mass audience.

A man of many good words“If they are bad, think that they would have been better, if they had had kind friends, and good homes, and had been better taught.”

Charles Dickens, Life of Our lord. Cited by Michael Slater, introduction to Christmas Carol.


If you have skipped the first three articles on child poverty, check them out here:




Child Poverty 3

The ReaperWhen most people think of child poverty they immediately think of Africa, India, places like that. Famine comes to mind, as does drought and disease and bringing up the rear, death, death and death. We often hear of harrowing stories and see pictures of children close to death from malnutrition, diarrhoea brought on by polluted water. Such is hell, who needs the devil!              There are so many cases that can be cited, we’ll settle for two:

Nepal: 66% severely deprived 40% in absolute poverty, malnutrition a major problem. (unicefglobalstudy.blogspot.co.uk)

Haiti: 54% live in abject poverty, 40% depend on subsistence farming to survive. (upoak.com)

Contrast those figures with those of JRF that 3% of children in the UK suffer from ‘chronic’ poverty. This is not to suggest that being poor in the developed nations is easy. However, it should not involve a shortage of: food, shelter, clothing or medicine which can be very much a reality in the places mentioned and in various parts of Africa and the sub-continent of India.

….. lives with her disabled husband and one-year-old son in a rented home in Coventry. Despite struggling financially, she questions the current definition of poverty.

“Compared to where I grew up in South Africa, people here are ridiculously wealthy. In Africa if you do not work, you do not eat. It is normal to see children walking to school without shoes on and digging for food in the dustbins.”

“Poverty there is also the fear that you are replaceable if you do not turn up for work. There is no protection.”

“The British government want to change the way poverty is measured, but if you choose to buy alcohol or drugs, you choose to put yourself into poverty.”

“The poverty we live under is mental poverty, not true poverty.”  Case study from BBC June 2012 (bbc.co.uk)

Seen from her two perspectives, is this woman right?

Moreover, a number of academics pour scorn on the West’s notion of poverty:

“Relative poverty rates are not poverty at all; they are measures of inequality…”

Professor of Economics, Miles Corak, (The Globe & Mail, May2012)

“There is no consensus about what constitutes poverty; it is essentially a political issue.”

(A.   Walker, 1990)

“Statistically, relative poverty is a measure of inequality in the bottom half of the income distribution.”

Kristen Niemietz, (A New Understanding of Poverty, 2011) If you like a sound factual approach you’ll like this. (iea.org.uk)

Can we reconcile the diametrically opposite views of poverty? One screams at you from the TV, while the other goes largely unnoticed. When there is a disaster like a famine or earthquake most people put some money in the can. The tragedy is visible, it’s in your face, and adverts milk the emotion of the event to maximize your donation.

Throughout the world poverty stalks the unfortunate like a fiend with no compassion. To help solve the situation we need to think long and hard. The aid donors in particular need to re-think their strategy on how they spend, monitor and evaluate their aid. There is absolutely no value in continuing with the present shambles of throwing money at the problem. For how many years has money been poured in and yet the plight of the people seems no better. Until the donor nations put their money into planning, construction, water supply and irrigation then I don’t think anything will change. It needs a root and branch re-think!


Homeless, Homeless

Homeless, Homeless

We should insist that the donors sit around a table and/or join via a conference call and find a strategy that all can work towards. Then they need to empty their bulging pockets onto the table and use the money to systematically improve a given situation. A whole gaggle flying in on separate expense accounts is a mockery of their stated aim and an insult to those in desperate need. How much money is wasted by having the horde of NGO’s charging in, with their know best attitude, doing their little bit, tinkering at the edges, putting a brick where a hundred houses should stand with all the necessary drainage etc:?  

              Cut the waste; don’t build in haste, plan, and plan to build good living space.

 If you missed Child Poverty 1 or 2 please check here:





Child Poverty 2


poverty wall

every brick a barrier

UNICEF – What’s in a figure?

UNICEF has produced a table based on a 50% relative poverty mean. It forms part of its submission in the Report Card 10, May 2012. In the table the UK comes 22nd, the USA 34th out of 35. Rumania holds up the pack. Therefore politicians would have you believe that they take poverty seriously. Here’s the problem, what constitutes relative poverty in one country will differ from another.

E.g. the working population of the UK may earn more than their equivalent in Spain, so the 60% median will differ for each country. It may also be the case that there are regional differences in each nation. For example; the North/South divide in the UK. A similar scenario will exist in all countries.

Point: On what do they base their table?

Q. Do I need a lesson in statistical analysis? Offers? Keep it simple mate!

UNICEF used a 50% median to compile its table; yet in its report it asks the UK to retain its 60% base. Why didn’t UNICEF do the same and use the 60% base? Would it have been politically unacceptable as more would have fallen into the poverty bracket? The figure is therefore arbitrary, Europe’s differs from the UK, and they both differ from the USA. Who’s got it right, any of them? Politicians love a figure it gives them somewhere to hang their spin.

Another measure that UNICEF use is the ‘child deprivation index’ based on the child achieving two of 14 basic essentials to include: 3 meals a day, 2 pairs of shoes, a quiet spot to do homework and able to invite friends for tea, etc. Surely every parent would give their child all that they could, if only they could afford it. In other words it all comes down to purchasing power but that is the system that the world is governed by, it’s called capitalism. You want to change the world – change the system! Good luck!

Needless to say but it is very hard to fight poverty: “trends in the economy and demography and education make progress against poverty so difficult to achieve.”        Ron Haskins, brookings.edu/

Blame it on the Trendies.

The Child Poverty Action Group (cpag.org.uk) says that to understand poverty you have to understand social norms. This has a link with M. Corak when he says that relative poverty is all about how we participate normally in society. However, these norms can fluctuate with the economy. Obviously more disposable income is spent on gadgets when times are good, – ‘status signalling’ or flashing the cash.

How many people have an I pad, smart phone, 40/60” TV, all-in-one computer, 4×4 SUV, MP3, this seasons colour, the latest ‘hot’ fashion, and the new trendy shoes? How many young people walk into school as though they’re on a catwalk? Purring? How do you feel if you are the one in the class who can’t afford to compete? How many children will never get what they asked Santa to bring? Are these young ‘cats’ flashing the cash or merely making the world go around?




shopping spree


Trendies: A fashion war

children looking after the herd

What’s fashion?




 Many would say the latter, because people are employed: making, distributing, selling and eventually recycling the goods. It also encourages technological development, it feeds the machine.

Did you miss part one? Check here. http://www.upoak.com/2012/12/07/democracy-5/